钢笔画-欧洲写生系列一

发布:2020-08-19 23:15:00浏览:7

Fountain of the Observatory in Jardin du Luxembourg, Paris
卢森堡公园,巴黎,法国


The Fontaine de l'Observatoire is a monumental fountain located in the Jardin Marco Polo, south of the Jardin du Luxembourg in the 6th arrondissement of Paris, with sculpture by Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux. It was dedicated in 1874. It is also known as the Fontaine des Quatre-Parties-du-Monde, for the four parts of the world embodied by its female figures, or simply the Fontaine Carpeaux. The Jardin du Luxembourg, is the second largest public park in Paris. The park is the garden of the French Senate, which is itself housed in the Luxembourg Palace.
天象仪喷泉是巴黎第六区,卢森堡公园南面的马可.波罗花园里的一座纪念喷泉雕塑,是雕塑家让.巴蒂斯特.卡尔波于1874年创作。也被称为世界四方喷泉,因为代表世界的地球由四位女性形象所支撑,或者简称为卡尔波喷泉。卢森堡公园是巴黎第二大的公共公园,这个公园里的卢森堡宫殿也是法国参议院所在地。

The Grand Stairs of Opera de Paris Garnier, Paris
巴黎伽赫涅歌剧院室内大台阶,巴黎,法国


Sometimes this Opera House compared to a giant wedding cake. This sumptuous building was designed by Charles Garnier for Napoleon III. Its unique appearance is due to a mixture of materials (including stone, marble and bronze) and styles, ranging from Classical to Baroque, with a multitude of columns, friezes and sculptures on the exterior. The construction started in 1862 and the building took 13 years to complete. The magnificent Grand Staircase made of white marble with a balustrade of red and green marble.
人们有时把巴黎老歌剧院比作一个巨大的婚礼蛋糕。这座豪华的建筑由查理-伽赫涅(Charles Garnier)于拿破仑三世统治时期设计。工程始建于1862年,耗时13年才完成。多种材料和风格的混合赋予这座建筑独特的外观,富丽堂皇的大楼梯是由白色大理石台阶及红色和绿色的大理石栏杆所建成。

Streetscape of the corner of Avenue Reille - House and Studio Ozenfant by Le Corbusier and Pierre Jeanneret 1922, Paris, France
雷耶大道转角街景-勒.柯布西耶设计的奥赞方住宅和工作室,巴黎


In 1922, some time after beginning their collaboration with Ozenfant, Le Corbusier made a home-study for the painter. This is the first work that Le Corbusier built in Paris.It is an early example of 'minimal' architecture, a prototype of the Domino house and a manifestation of some of the principles which Le Corbusier was to set out in his famous 'five points.' It possessed a geometrical clarity inside and out which has since been lost with the elimination of the north-light roof and its replacement by a flat one.
1922年在与奥赞方开始合作后不久,勒.柯布西耶为画家设计了一个工作室居所。这是勒.柯布西耶在巴黎建成的第一栋建筑。这是设计师早期“极简风格”建筑的一个实例,是多米诺住宅的原型和其以后著名的新建筑“五点”宣言的早期探索。该建筑呈现出内外清晰的几何关系,由于被拆除的北面采光的天窗,取而代之的平屋面而使得建筑的几何关系显得模糊。

Streetscape of Boulevard Masséna - Maison Planeix by Le Corbusier and Pierre Jeanneret 1928, Paris
马赛纳大道街景-勒.柯布西耶普拉内西住宅


The Maison Planeix is a perfectly proportioned, squat terrace house that is at once grand in the symmetry of its entrance, balcony and overall facade, and modest in its scale and materials. It was built for Antonin Planeix, a sculptor of funerary monuments. This stands on the avenue Masséna, a wide and noisy street to the east end of Paris.
普拉西内住宅是一座拥有完美比例,出挑的露台、阳台和整个沿街立面以入口的中轴线来组织,谦逊的材料和尺度的住宅。是为一位墓葬纪念碑的雕塑家安东尼·普拉西内所设计。这座建筑位于通往巴黎东端的宽阔喧闹马赛纳大道上。 Le Corbusier used the formula "une maison/un palais" He meant... the ennoblement of a basic house type through proportion to the point where it achieved monumentality... If there is a single Le Corbusier house of the 1920s that really deserves the description "une maison, un palais", it must surely be the Maison Planeix of 1924-8. It is a miniature urban palace in effect and in intention: with a formal, symmetrical facade, an entrance axis, a piano nobile, an emphasized ground level and cornice, and even, at one stage of its design, a courtyard.
勒.柯布西耶使用类似“一所宅子/一做宫殿”来形容这座住宅。通过精确的比例使得基本的住宅类型具备高贵的纪念性,如果1920年代勒.柯布西耶的住宅设计中值得被称为“一所宅子/一做宫殿”那一定是1924-28年间设计建造的普拉西内住宅。这座住宅是一个处心积虑打造的微缩的都市场所:其正式的对称的立面,入口的轴线关系,钢琴曲线,着重处理的首层布局和檐口,甚至,在其设计中还包含一个庭院!

The Conciergerie on Ile de la Cite seen from Quai de la Mégisserie, Paris
从赛纳河畔的制革码头看西岱岛上的看门人城堡,巴黎,法国


The historic Conciergerie was originally the residence of the Conte des Cierges, the palace superintendent in charge of taxes and lodgings. The Conciergerie has superb four-aisled Gothic Salle des Gens d’Armes, where guards of the royal household once lived. La Conciergerie is a former royal palace and prison in Paris, France, located on the west of the Île de la Cité (literally island of the city), near the Cathedral of Notre-Dame. It is part of the larger complex known as the Palais de Justice, which is still used for judicial purposes.
在塞纳河畔,有一座历史上名为Conciergerie的官邸,它最初是Cierges伯爵的官邸,其主管负责税务和出租住房。Conciergerie拥有四座华丽的哥特式堡垒,皇宫王室禁卫队曾于此驻扎。看门人城堡是巴黎历史上的皇家宫殿和监狱,在西岱岛西岸,在巴黎圣母院附近。现在是巴黎错综复杂的司法部门的一部分,现在还履行司法方面的职能。

Urbanscape of City of Paris, Paris
巴黎城市景观,法国,巴黎


 


 


 


Bibliothèque St Geneviève is regarded as "One of the greatest cultural buildings of the nineteenth century to use iron in a prominent, visible way was unquestionably the Bibliothèque Ste.-Genevieve in Paris, designed by Henri Labrouste and built in 1842-50. The large (278 by 69 feet) two-storied structure filling a wide, shallow site is deceptively simple in scheme: the lower floor is occupied by stacks to the left, rare-book storage and office space to the right, with a central vestibule and stairway leading to the reading room which fills the entire upper story. The ferrous structure of this reading room—a spine of slender, cast-iron Ionic columns dividing the space into twin aisles and supporting openwork iron arches that carry barrel vaults of plaster reinforced by iron mesh—has always been revered by Modernists for its introduction of high technology into a monumental building." (Marvin Trachtenberg and Isabelle Hyman. Architecture: from Prehistory to Post-Modernism. p478.)
索邦大学(Université de la Sorbonne)旁边的圣-吉纳维夫图书馆(Bibliothèque St Geneviève)被认为是“十九世纪最伟大文化建筑之一,1842-50年间由亨利.拉步鲁斯特设计和建造的圣-吉纳维夫图书馆,毫无疑问是当时采用最充分展示铸铁结构特征的建筑。看似简单的长278英尺,宽69英尺的两层楼的方案:底层左侧是书架,珍藏书籍和办公室在右侧,中间是门厅和通往二层的楼梯,而整个二层是是大的阅览室。阅览室铸铁的结构-修长的、铸铁的爱奥尼式的柱子将阅览室分为两条过道,镂空的铸铁承重拱支撑钢筋网加固的石膏拱壳- 一直被现代主义者所推崇的将现代技术引入纪念性的建筑。 ” The Bibliothèque Ste.-Genevieve structure designed by Labrouste stands at the Sainte-Genevieve hill, across the street from the Pantheon, in the Latin Quarter. The close proximity of the Pantheon may have been the cause for Labrouste to add a leafy garland band above the windows on the first level exterior nearly identical to the band on the Pantheon, perhaps as Labrouste's notion of respect to the monument of Roman Architecture.
圣-吉纳维夫图书馆位于拉丁区的圣-吉纳维夫山,与万神殿隔街相对。由于靠近万神庙,拉步鲁斯特在一层外墙的窗户上添加绿叶花环的装饰,以便与邻近的万神庙的装饰飘带相呼应,也许是表达拉步鲁斯特对罗马纪念建筑的尊重。

The Fountain des Quatre Points Cardinaux, Saint-Sulpic, Paris
巴黎圣•苏尔皮斯教堂前的喷泉,巴黎,法国


Saint-Sulpice is a Roman Catholic church in Paris, France, on the east side of the Place Saint-Sulpice, in the Luxembourg Quarter of the VI arrondissement. At 113 metres long, 58 metres in width and 34 metres tall, it is only slightly smaller than Notre-Dame and thus the second largest church in the city. It is dedicated to Sulpitius the Pious. During the 18th century, an elaborate gnomon, the Gnomon of Saint-Sulpice, was constructed in the church.
圣.苏尔皮斯是巴黎的罗马天主教教堂,位于第六行政区的卢森堡区的圣.苏尔皮斯广场东面。其113米长,58米宽和34米高,是仅次于巴黎圣母院的巴黎第二大教堂。该教堂是奉献给虔诚的Sulpitius。18世纪 一个精确的日冕,所谓的圣.苏尔皮斯日冕被安放在教堂内。 The front façade of the Saint-Sulpice church overlooks a pleasant square, laid out in the 18th century and named Place St. Sulpice after the church. The central fountain - the Fontaine des Quatre Points Cardinaux - was designed in 1844 by Joachim Visconti and shows four seated bishops who never became cardinal. Hence the name of the fountain, which can be translated as the Fountain of the Four Not Cardinals.
圣.苏尔皮斯教堂的正立面俯瞰令人愉悦的圣.苏尔皮斯广场,广场中心的喷泉-Quatre Points Cardinaux喷泉-由约阿希姆.维斯康蒂于1844年设计,表现四位主教的坐像分别朝向东南西北四个方位,这四位主教都没成为枢机主教。因此该喷泉的名称又被称作四位非枢机主教喷泉。

Basilique du Sacré-Cœur, Montmartre, Paris, France
圣心教堂,蒙马特高地,巴黎,法国


The Basilica of the Sacred Heart of Paris, commonly known as Sacré-Cœur Basilica is a Roman Catholic church and minor basilica, dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus, in Paris, France. A popular landmark, the basilica is located at the summit of the butte Montmartre, the highest point in the city. Sacré-Cœur is a double monument, political and cultural, both a national penance for the supposed excesses of the Second Empire and socialist Paris Commune of 1871 crowning its most rebellious neighborhood, and an embodiment of conservative moral order, publicly dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus, which was an increasingly popular vision of a loving and sympathetic Christ.
巴黎圣心大教堂是一座奉献给基督圣心的罗马天主教教堂。教堂位于巴黎市最高点的蒙马特高地的山顶,是城市受欢迎的标志。圣心教堂是政治和文化的双重意义的象征,是对过度奢靡的第二帝国和1871年社会主义巴黎公社抗争最激烈的地区的国家忏悔,作为保守的道德秩序的价值体现,这座奉献给耶稣基督圣心的教堂日渐成为充满爱心和同情心的基督的象征。

Église de Saint-Germain-des-Prés, Paris, France
圣•热耳曼教堂,巴黎,法国


This is the oldest church in Paris, originating in 542 when King Childebert built a basilica to house holy relics. The present church dates from about the 11th century and heavily restored in the 19th century. One of the three original towers survives, housing one of the oldest belfries in France. The abbey church remains as the Église de Saint-Germain-des-Prés, Paris. The tomb of philosopher René Descartes is located in one of the church's side chapels.
圣•热耳曼教堂是巴黎最古老的教堂,最初是由法王希尔德贝尔特一世(Childebert I)于542年建造的长方形教堂用于贡奉圣物。现今留存的教堂始建于11世纪,并于19世纪大规模重建。最初教堂三个钟塔中的一个存留至今,成为法国境内最古老的钟楼之一。这里保持着法国天主教廷知识分子活动中心。哲学家勒内.笛卡尔的墓地位于该教堂侧面的一个小礼拜堂内。 The two Catholic businessmen, Alexandre Legentil and Rohault de Fleurt made a private religious vow to build a church dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Chirst. The project was taken up by Archbishop Guibert of Paris. Work began in 1875 to Paul Abadie’s designs.They were inspired by Romano-Byzantine church of St-Front in Perigueux. Construction began in 1875 and was finished in 1914.
这座教堂是由两位虔诚的天主教商人亚历山大•莱让第也(Alexandre Legentil) 和荷奥•德•弗莱尔 (Rohault de Fleurt)为完成他们许下的宗教誓约而建造的,用以供奉基督耶稣的圣心。工程由巴黎大主教吉伯特(Guibert)主持,保罗•阿巴第(Paul Abadie)设计,于1875年开工。设计灵感受到在Perigueux的St-Front Romano-Byzantine教堂的影响。建造始于1875年并于1914年建成。

Corner of Denon Wing of Musee du Louvre, Paris
巴黎卢浮宫德农厅一角,巴黎,法国


The Musée du Louvre is one of the world's largest museums, and a historic monument. A central landmark of Paris, France, it is located on the Right Bank of the Seine in the 1st arrondissement. The Louvre is the world's most visited museum.
卢浮宫博物馆是世界上最大的博物馆,以及历史纪念建筑。是巴黎中心的标志,位于塞纳河的右岸的第一行政区。卢浮宫是世界上参观人数最多的博物馆。 Over many centuries, the Louvre was enlarged by a succession of France rulers. The Denon Wing was built during the Reign of Louis XIII, which borders the Seine to the south, and a re cent addition is the main courtyard’s glass pyramid which was designed by I.M.Pei.
法国巴黎卢浮宫的扩建历经数世纪,经由连续几代法国统治者的努力而完成。德农馆(Denon)建于路易十三时期,界定了塞纳河南面,而位于庭院中央的玻璃金字塔则由美籍华裔著名建筑师贝聿铭设计。

Fountain in the Square du Jean XXIII Behind Notre-Dame, Paris
巴黎圣母院后教皇约翰二十三世广场上的喷泉亭子,巴黎,法国


Square Jean XXIII is a small garden to the rear of the Notre Dame de Paris cathedral on the Île de la Cité, the birthplace of Paris. The square is named after Pope John XXIII. Notre-Dame’s St. Stephen’s door opens onto this pleasant garden square, dedicated to Pope John XXIII. A Gothic-style fountain of the Virgin standing in the center of the square has been placed there since 1845.
教皇约翰二十三世小广场位于西岱岛上巴黎圣母院的后面,是巴黎市最初建市的地方。广场是以教皇约翰二十三世命名的。穿过著名的巴黎圣母院的圣-斯蒂芬(St. Stephen)大门通向后面这个令人赏心悦目的花园广场。在花园中,有一座自1845年就矗立在内的哥特风格的喷泉亭子,雕塑居中矗立着一座圣母雕像。

The Corner of Sculpture Garden of Musee Rodin, Paris
巴黎的罗丹美术馆内花园一角,巴黎,法国


Auguste Rodin, who is widely regarded as the greatest 19th-century French sculptor, lived and worked in the Hotel Biron, an elegant 18th-century mansion, from 1908 until his death in 1917. In return for a state-owned flat and studio, Rodin left his work to the nation, and it is now exhibited here. Some of his most celebrated sculptures are on display in the garden: The Burgbers of Calais, The Thinker, The Gates of Hell and Balzac. Many of his sculptures are displayed in the museum's extensive garden.
被广泛认为十九世纪最杰出的法国雕刻家奥古斯特•罗丹(Auguste Rodin),自1908年直到他1917年逝世一直生活、工作于毕洪邸(Hotel Biron),一座十八世纪优雅而精致的府邸。由于国家对其提供生活和工作的条件,作为回报,罗丹把他的所有作品都留给国家,其大部分作品如今都陈列于此。他的一些最著名的雕刻陈列于府邸的花园,如加莱义民、思想者、地狱之门、巴尔扎克等。许多罗丹的雕塑陈列于博物馆宽敞的花园里。 The Musée Rodin in Paris, France, is a museum that was opened in 1919, dedicated to the works of the French sculptor Auguste Rodin. While living in the Villa des Brillants Rodin used the Hôtel Biron as his workshop from 1908, and subsequently donated his entire collection of sculptures (along with paintings by Vincent van Gogh and Pierre-Auguste Renoir that he had acquired) to the French State on the condition that they turn the buildings into a museum dedicated to his works.
罗丹博物馆于1919年对外开放,主要陈列雕塑家罗丹的作品。 自1908年当罗丹居住在辉煌别墅的时候,他把毕洪酒店作为他的工作室。随后他将他所有的雕塑藏品,连同他收藏的梵高和雷诺阿的油画捐赠给法国政府,前提是将他的工作室作为陈列这些作品的博物馆。

The Scene of Pont du Carrousel on La Seine, Paris
赛纳河畔和卡鲁赛尔桥景色,法国,巴黎


The Seine is a 776 km-long river and an important commercial waterway within the Paris Basin in the north of France. It rises at Source-Seine, 30 kilometres northwest of Dijon in northeastern France in the Langres plateau, flowing through Paris and into the English Channel at Le Havre. There are 37 bridges within Paris and dozens more spanning the river outside the city. The Pont du Carrousel is a bridge in Paris, which spans the River Seine between the Quai des Tuileries and the Quai Voltaire. Begun in 1831 in the prolongation of the rue des Saints-Pères on the Left Bank, the original bridge was known under that name until its inauguration, in 1834, when king Louis-Philippe named it Pont du Carrousel, because it opened on the Right Bank river frontage of the Palais du Louvre near the Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel in front of the Tuileries.
塞纳河776公里长,是法国北部巴黎盆地一条重要的商业水路。塞纳河起源于法国东北大型高地上的第戎西北30公里处,穿越整个巴黎在勒.阿弗尔汇入英吉利海峡。巴黎市内有37座桥跨越塞纳河,另外市外有超过12座桥。卡鲁塞尔桥是连接伏尔泰河岸和杜伊勒里宫河岸之间的桥。1831年塞纳河的左岸的圣教父路的延伸工程建造了这座桥,直到1834年的就职典礼,法王路易丝-菲利普将这座桥命名为卡鲁塞尔桥,因为该桥位于卢浮宫正面河岸的右边,并靠近杜伊勒里宫前面的卡鲁塞尔凯旋门。

The Streetscape of Muséed'Orsay on Quai AnatoleFrance, Paris
法兰西安纳托利码头街景-奥赛美术馆,巴黎,法国


The Musée d'Orsay is a museum in Paris, France, on the left bank of the Seine. It is housed in the former Gare d'Orsay, an impressive Beaux-Arts railway station built between 1898 and 1900. The museum holds mainly French art dating from 1848 to 1915, including paintings, sculptures, furniture, and photography. It is probably best known for its extensive collection of impressionist and post-impressionist masterpieces (the largest in the world) by such painters such as Monet, Manet, Degas, Renoir, Cézanne, Seurat, Sisley, Gauguin and Van Gogh.
奥赛美术馆是位于赛纳河左岸的一座美术馆。以前曾是奥赛火车站,一座令人印象深刻学院派风格的轨交车站,建于1898-1900年间。这座美术馆主要展出1848年到1915年法国艺术作品,包括油画、雕塑、家具和摄影。其中享誉盛名的是其丰富的印象主义和后印象主义的收藏,包括莫奈,德加,雷诺阿。塞尚,修拉,斯西里,高更和梵高的作品。

The Roof Terrace of Museum D’Orsay, Paris
奥赛美术馆屋顶平台,巴黎,法国


In 1986, 47years after it had closed as a mainline railway station, Victor Laloux’s superb turn-of-the century building was reopened as Musee d’Orsay. Victor Laloux designed the building for Universal Exhibition in 1900. The new museum was set up to present each of the arts of the period from 1848 to 1914 in the context of the contemporary society and all the various forms of creative activity happening at the time.
在作为火车干线车站被关闭47年后,维克多•拉路克斯(Victor Laloux)设计的这座华丽的建筑建于十九世纪之初,于1986年以奥赛美术馆(Musee d’Orsay)的姿态重新对公众开放。新的美术馆内展示了自1848年至1914年间的各类艺术作品。

The Opera de Paris Bastille Plaza, Paris
巴士底新歌剧院,巴黎,法国


L'Opéra Bastille (Bastille Opera) is a modern opera house in Paris, France. It is the home base of the Opéra national de Paris and was designed to replace the Palais Garnier, which remains in use as an opera house but also presents ballet performances. Located at the Place de la Bastille, in the 12th arrondissement, construction began in 1984 with the demolition of the Gare de la Bastille, which was opened in 1859 and closed on 14 December 1969, and where art expositions were held thereafter until its demolition.It was officially opened on July 14,1989, to coincide with the bicentennial celebrations of the fall of the Bastille. With its five movable stages, this opera house is a masterpiece of technological wizardry.
巴士底歌剧院是巴黎一座现代化的歌剧院,是巴黎国家歌剧院的基地,用来取代伽赫涅歌剧,尽管伽赫涅歌剧仍上演歌剧和芭蕾舞剧。位于第12区巴士底广场,1984年巴士底车站的拆除标志着新歌剧院的动工,巴士底车站1959年开始启用并于1969年12月14日关闭,其后该车站用作艺术展览直至被拆除。巴黎新歌剧院正式于1989年7月14日对公众开放,以庆祝以巴士底狱陷落为标志的法国大革命二百周年纪念。这座歌剧院拥有5个可移动的舞台,被认为是歌剧院设计中一个技术上的杰作。

Duisburg-Nord Industrial Landscape Park, Duisburg Nord, Germany
北杜伊斯堡工业景观公园, 北杜伊斯堡, 德国


Landschaftspark is a public park located in Duisburg Nord, Germany. It was designed in 1991 by Latz + Partner (Peter Latz), with the intention that it work to heal and understand the industrial past, rather than trying to reject it. The park closely associates itself with the past use of the site: a coal and steel production plant (abandoned in 1985, leaving the area significantly polluted) and the agricultural land it had been prior to the mid 19th century.
位于北杜伊斯堡的工业区景观公园于1991年由Latz + Partner设计,这个项目的目的是治愈和了解工业化的历史,而不是简单的拒绝这个过程.这个公园保留了原有的用地:煤铁加工厂(1985年被放弃,遗留下污染严重废弃厂址)以及周边19世纪中期就存在的农业耕地.

Stonehenge,England
巨石阵,英格兰


Stonehenge is a prehistoric monument in the English county of Wiltshire. One of the most famous sites in the world, Stonehenge is the remains of a ring of standing stones set within earthworks. It is in the middle of the most dense complex of Neolithic and Bronze Age monuments in England, including several hundred burial mounds.
巨石阵是位于英格兰威尔特郡的史前遗迹,是世界上最著名的景点之一,巨石阵是矗立于大地上一圈石柱。巨石阵连同数百个埋葬土丘是英格兰新石器时代和青铜时期的最错综复杂的纪念建筑。 Archaeologists believe it was built anywhere from 3000 BC to 2000 BC. The site and its surroundings were added to the UNESCO's list of World Heritage Sites in 1986 in a co-listing with Avebury Henge. It is a national legally protected Scheduled Ancient Monument. Stonehenge is owned by the Crown and managed by English Heritage, while the surrounding land is owned by the National Trust. The site is a place of religious significance and pilgrimage in Neo-Druidry.
考古学家认为巨石阵建造于公元前3000年到2000年间。巨石阵和埃夫伯利石阵一起被联合国教科文组织于1986年列为世界遗产。也是英国国家受法律保护的古老的纪念建筑。巨石阵是国家财产并由英国文化遗产部门管理,而其周边的土地则为国家信托基金所有。这个场所被认为是新德鲁伊教的宗教和朝圣者的圣地。

Suspension Railway in Wuppertal, Germany
乌帕塔尔的悬挂铁轨交通, 乌帕塔尔, 德国


During the 1880s the German businessman and engineer Eugen Langen experimented in his Cologne sugar factory with a low leveled one-track suspension railway system for the transportation of raw materials. He was a business partner of Nicolaus Otto, the inventor of the internal-combustion engine, and probably knew the Palmer Railway. In the nearby expanding industrial zone of Wupper Valley, entrepreneurs and governors were looking for a modern urban transportation system. A cooperation of politicians and businessmen from the Barmen-Elberfeld industrial area around 1890 ordered from the factory of Otto and Langen, now Deutz, an electric powered elevated railway system. In 1901 the first track of the Wuppertal Schwebebahn opened, in 1903 it was extended to the final length of 13.3 kilometers (8.3 mi). This system is still in operation as a normal means of public transport, moving over 20 million passengers each year.
在1880年代德国商人和工程师欧根.兰根在他的科隆糖厂里尝试采用架空的单轨悬挂系统来传送一些原材料. 他也是发明内燃机的尼古拉斯.奥托的生意合伙人, 共同经营帕尔默铁路公司. 在附近的乌帕谷地的工业区的扩张中, 企业家和政府都在寻找现代化的都市交通系统. 大约在1890年,在巴门-埃尔伯菲尔德工业区的政客和商人的合作下, 从奥托和兰根的工厂,就是现在的道依茨公司,订购一套电力高架悬挂轨道系统. 1901年第一条乌帕塔尔悬挂单轨铁路建成,到1903年已经延伸到最终全长13.3公里. 这个系统至今也还用作公共交通系统, 每年运送大约两千万人次.

Streetscape of Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany
杜塞尔多夫街景, 杜塞尔多夫, 德国


Düsseldorf is the capital city of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia and centre of the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region. Düsseldorf is an international business and financial centre and renowned for its fashion and trade fairs.
杜塞尔多夫是德国北莱茵-威斯特法伦州的首府和莱茵-鲁尔大都市区的中心,也是一座国际化的商业和金融中心,并以其时尚和贸易展销会而闻名.

Streetscape of Lille, Lille, France
里尔市街景, 里尔, 法国


Lille is the largest city in French Flanders. It is the principal city of the Lille Métropole, the fourth-largest metropolitan area in France after those of Paris, Lyon and Marseille. Lille is situated on the Deûle River, near France's border with Belgium. It is the capital of the Nord-Pas de Calais region and the prefecture of the Nord department.
里尔是法国法兰德斯最大的城市,也是里尔大都市圈的主要城市,是继巴黎、里昂和马赛之后的法国第四大城市。里尔位于法国和比利时边境的德鲁河上,也是北加莱海峡区和北部州的首府。

Palladian Mansion in Stourhead Landscape Garden, Wiltshire, England
斯托海德公园里的帕拉第奥风格宫邸, 威尔特郡,英格兰


When Stourhead first opened in the 1740s, a magazine described it as ‘a living work of art’. This is one of the most beautiful and well-preserved examples of the "English landscape style" from the 18th century. The world-famous landscape garden has at its centrepiece a magnificent lake, and features a two-mile circuit walk of the garden, allowing the walker to encounter and contemplate a grotto, several imitations of Roman temples, woodlands and rare and exotic trees, and offers a day of fresh air and discovery. The house, designed by Colen Campbell in 1721, is an example of the Palladian style of architecture.
当1740年代斯托海德公园对外开放,一本杂志将其描述为‘一个有生命力的艺术品’. 这是英国十八世纪最美丽和保存最完好的"英国风格园林"的典范. 举世闻名的斯托海德花园以其中心宽阔的湖面为核心,设有两英里的环形散布道, 漫步的游客会穿越洞穴, 几座模仿古罗马风格的神庙, 和拥有稀有和异国情调树木的森林, 给整天游园的人们提供新鲜的空气和有趣的发现. 花园中的宫邸,由考伦.坎贝尔于1721年设计,是座典型的帕拉第奥风格的建筑.

Streetscape of Bath, Somerset, England
巴斯街景,萨默塞特郡,英格兰


Bath is a city in the ceremonial county of Somerset in South West England. The city was first established as a spa with the Latin name, Aquae Sulis ("the waters of Sulis") by the Romans sometime in the AD 60s about 20 years after they had arrived in Britain (AD43), Much later, it became popular as a spa town during the Georgian era, which led to a major expansion that left a heritage of exemplary Georgian architecture crafted from Bath Stone.
巴斯是西南英格兰萨默塞特郡的一座著名的城市。在罗马进驻英格兰(公元43年)大约20年后,巴斯最初于公于60年代罗马时期建造的被称之为“苏利斯水”水浴中心。在乔治时代成为受欢迎的温泉旅游地,城市也因此扩张而留下大量用巴斯石材建造的乔治时期风格的建筑遗产。

Partial View of Munich Airport, Munich, Germany
慕尼黑国际机场局部, 慕尼黑, 德国
Munich international Airport (Flughafen München) is located near the old city of Freising and is named in memory of the former Bavarian Prime minister Franz Josef Strauss. Munich Airport serves as Lufthansa’s second hub in Germany besides Frankfurt.
慕尼黑国际机场靠近弗赖辛旧城,以前巴伐利亚州州长弗朗茨.约瑟夫.施特劳斯名字命名,慕尼黑机场是德国汉莎航空除法兰克福机场外的第二大枢纽。